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West African countries are marked by deep and meaningful changes which the changes have important implications for agriculture. Thus the overall population doubles every 25 years, and tends more and more urbanized. Increasing urbanization of the population, which should have a beneficial effect on the expansion of the potential market for producers has actually little impact in the Sahelian zone where agriculture is more marked by a sense of self-sufficiency by a logic of marketing. They are based on the exploitation of local resources, climate and configuration of the crop is the main factor determining the yield and thus the resources of the farmers.

This effect is accentuated by the fact that the plant material grown in these areas is sometimes poorly adapted to the environment and / or market demand. Cultures are indeed sufficiently diversified, and the varieties and production methods used are not always adapted to drought. When they are, we must anticipate change, and further improve their tolerance to water deficit.